The High Line is an elevated railway recycle transformed into a public park on Manhattan's West Side.

The High Line is a 1-mile New York City linear park built on a 1.45-mile section of the elevated former New York Central Railroad spur called the West Side Line, which runs along the lower west side of Manhattan; it has been redesigned and planted as an aerial greenway. A similar project in Paris, the 3-mile Promenade plantée, completed in 1993, was the inspiration for this project. The High Line currently runs from Gansevoort Street, three blocks below West 14th Street, in the Meatpacking District, to 30th Street, through the neighborhood of Chelsea to the West Side Yard, near the Javits Convention Center. Formerly, the viaduct of the High Line went as far south as Canal Street (where the entrance to the Holland Tunnel is now), but the lower section was demolished in 1960. The recycling of the railway into an urban park has spurred real estate development in the neighborhoods which lie along the line.

Rev: "In the cold winter months, there are far fewer tourists clogging the pathways. It's well worth an early morning visit to enjoy an elevated jog above the city!"
In 1847, the City of New York authorized street-level railroad tracks down Manhattan’s West Side. For safety, the railroads hired men the "West Side Cowboys" to ride horses and wave flags in front of the trains. Yet so many accidents occurred between freight trains and other traffic that 10th Avenue became known as "Death Avenue".

After years of public debate about the hazard, in 1929 the city and the state of New York and the New York Central Railroad agreed on the West Side Improvement Project, which included the High Line. The 13-mile project eliminated 105 street-level railroad crossings and added 32 acres to Riverside Park. It cost over $150 million, about $2 billion in 2009 dollars.

Rev: "Lucky to find a sunny day (still only 32 def F/0 deg C) but walked the Highline which was one of the highlights on 2 week NY trip. Will have to come back in Summer and re-walk it. Great views of city and very well laid out on existing EL."
The High Line opened to trains in 1934. It originally ran from 34th Street to St. John's Park Terminal, at Spring Street. It was designed to go through the center of blocks, rather than over the avenue, to avoid the drawbacks of elevated trains. It connected directly to factories and warehouses, allowing trains to roll right inside buildings. Milk, meat, produce, and raw and manufactured goods could be transported and unloaded without disturbing traffic on the streets. This also reduced pilferage for the Bell Laboratories Building, now the Westbeth Artists Community, and the Nabisco plant, now Chelsea Market, which were served from protected sidings within the structures.

Rev: "We go to the High Line as often as we can. It's a beautiful spot for a walk. And it's nice to get off the streets for a little peace and quiet every once in a while. Love it!"
Rev: "This is the third time I've been here. Each time an additional section has been built and its conclusion can now be seen, even if the last block or so is not quite finished. The final result will be an elevated structure that extends from just below 14th Street on the far west side of Manhattan up to 30th Street and a view on the Hudson River. At various points, there are entrances/exits, always stairs and sometimes an elevator.

So, what IS the High Line? Think of it as a boardwalk, but instead of running along the ocean and beach, it runs along the Hudson River. It also runs in between and under various high-rise buildings, a route that provides it with a city feeling that few boardwalks have."
"While there is wood on this boardwalk, there is also concrete, plantings, trees, etc., a wide variety of surfaces. There are also places where people can sit, either on benches or folding chairs. There is even one place where one could seat an audience. It's funky, creative, and unique. That's why I give it Five Dots; along with other must-see NYC landmarks, this is the new one.

One word of warning, as with any boardwalk locale near water, this place will no doubt be cold in the winter, so dress warm if that's the time you have to go. And in summer, where a hat because there's little in the way of shade for most of its length."

Rev: "Get a cup of coffee and walk the whole line from about 12th st to the 30ths with lots of entrances and exits. Good sculpture and people watching."
The train also passed underneath the Western Electric complex at Washington Street. This section has survived until today and is not connected with the rest of the developed park. The growth of interstate trucking in the 1950s led to a drop in rail traffic throughout the nation. In the 1960s, the southernmost section of the line was demolished. This section started at Gansevoort Street and ran down Washington Street as far as Canal Street, representing almost half of the line. The last train on the remaining part of the line was operated by Conrail in 1980 with three carloads of frozen turkeys.

Rev: "Entered at 30th Street between 11th and 12th avenues...wonderful walk along the "top" of 10th Avenue. Highly recommend in sunshine or in rain (we had both). Good access and the Gansevoort exit puts you right into Greenwich Village. The Friends of the High Line had great vision and they are to be commended...can hardly wait to see the extension west and north."
In the mid-1980s, a group of property owners with land under the line lobbied for the demolition of the entire structure. Peter Obletz, a Chelsea resident, activist, and railroad enthusiast, challenged the demolition efforts in court and tried to re-establish rail service on the line. In the 1990s, as the line lay unused and in disrepair (despite the fact that the riveted steel elevated structure was basically sound) it became known to a few urban explorers and local residents for the tough, drought-tolerant wild grasses, shrubs, and rugged trees such as sumac that had sprung up in the gravel along the abandoned railway. It was slated for demolition under the administration of then-mayor Rudy Giuliani.

Rev: "Don't miss this Manhattan delight, vivid artery flowing thru Chelsea to West Village. A charming piece of modernity keeping disappearing history still living. Beautiful 360 degrees view , very romantic and so exciton, I love this place so much !"
In 1999, the non-profit Friends of the High Line was formed by Joshua David and Robert Hammond, residents of the neighborhood the High Line ran through. They advocated for the Line's preservation and reuse as public open space, an elevated park or greenway, similar to the Promenade Plantée in Paris.

Rev: "New York City's High Line provides a delightful diversion from the city's street-level stresses and concrete format. Tourists and locals alike can reconnect with nature through the innovative transformation of abandoned elevated-train platforms into a public park with unique landscaping designs, benches and tables, even some vendors along the reclaimed route through several west-side neighborhoods. The areas below are themselves experiencing a revitalization where you can find many new restaurant offerings and boutiques around the High Line's various entry/exit points. Fun and free!"
Broadened community support of public redevelopment for the High Line for pedestrian use grew, and in 2004, the New York City government committed $50 million to establish the proposed park. New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg and City Council Speakers Gifford Miller and Christine C. Quinn were important supporters.

On June 13, 2005, the U.S. Federal Surface Transportation Board issued a certificate of interim trail use, allowing the City to remove most of the line from the national railway system. On April 10, 2006, Mayor Bloomberg presided over a ceremony that marked the beginning of construction.

Rev: "I was a bit skeptical to walk the high line in December (when it was freezing outside!), but once I got up there I forgot all about the temperature. It was gorgeous. Beautiful trees and plants, stunning design from the benches to the look out points. It is well worth a stroll any time of year."
The park was designed by the James Corner's New York-based landscape architecture firm Field Operations and architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro, with planting design from Piet Oudolf of the Netherlands, lighting design from L'Observatoire International, and engineering design by Buro Happold. Major backers have included Philip Falcone and Diane von Furstenberg, her husband Barry Diller, and her children Alexander von Furstenberg and Tatiana von Furstenberg. Hotel developer Andre Balazs, owner of the Chateau Marmont in Los Angeles, built the 337-room Standard Hotel straddling the High Line at West 13th Street.

Rev: "The High Line is an old railway above the streets of Chelsea (West-Village). It is turned into a park and you can have a really nice walk between the popular and hip Meatpacking District and Midtown Manhattan. From the line you have great views at the city. It's a pity the line is (at this moment) so short. It would be great to have this stroll all the way to uptown Manhattan."
The southernmost section, from Gansevoort Street to 20th Street, opened as a city park on June 8, 2009. This southern section includes five stairways and elevators at 14th Street and 16th Street. On June 7, 2011 a ribbon was cut to open the second High Line section from 20th Street to 30th Street, with Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City Council Speaker Christine Quinn, Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer, and Congressman Jerrold Nadler in attendance. The northernmost section, from 30th to 34th Streets, is owned by CSX Transportation, which in 2011 agreed in principle to donate the section to the city, while the Related Companies, which own the development rights to the West Side Rail Yards, agreed not to tear down the spur that crosses 10th Avenue.

Rev: "Absolutely fabulous interactive regeneration of disused elevated railway line. Even in winter and very cold weather was a great walk. Loved the viewing platforms over the streets below. Loved looking into windows at that level and getting a glimpse of life in the meat packer district. Combine with a trip to Chelsea markets and the meatpacker district"
The park extends from Gansevoort Street north to 30th Street where the elevated tracks turn west around the Hudson Yards development projectto the Javits Convention Center on 34th Street. Open daily from 7 am to 10 pm, the park can be reached through nine entrances, four of which are accessible to people with disabilities.

The park's attractions include naturalized plantings that are inspired by the self-seeded landscape that grew on the disused tracks and new, often unexpected views of the city and the Hudson River.

Rev: "We've followed the development of the High Line for more than a decade. We first visited soon after it opened and have been back several times since. It's a great place for a leisurely walk, looking around both near and far.You feel you're both away from the city and immersed in the West Side. Great plantings for all seasons, seating areas, art and sculpture. Fabulous views of the Hudson River waterfront. Lots of interesting people young and old, from the neighborhood and all over the world. Go to walk, or bring along something to read and just hang out.Lots of restaurants along 10th Avenue if you get hungry."
Pebble-dash concrete walkways unify the trail, which swells and constricts, swinging from side to side, and divides into concrete tines that meld the hardscape with the planting embedded in railroad gravel mulch. Stretches of track and ties recall the High Line's former use. Portions of track are adaptively re-used for rolling lounges positioned for river views. Most of the planting, which includes 210 species, is of rugged meadow plants, including clump-forming grasses, liatris and coneflowers, with scattered stands of sumac and smokebush, but not limited to American natives. At the Gansevoort end, a grove of mixed species of birch already provides some dappled shade by late afternoon. Ipê timber for the built-in benches has come from a managed forest certified by the Forest Stewardship Council, to ensure sustainable use and the conservation of biological diversity, water resources and fragile ecosystems.

Rev: "The highline is nice, a good view down on the city and a nice walk after any of the number of restaurants in Chelsea. One of the few free romantic things to do in the city. Great place to eavesdrop or people watch as well."
The High Line has cultural attractions as well as its integrated architecture and plant life. As part of a long-term plan for the park to host temporary installations and performances of various kinds, Creative Time, Friends of the High Line, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation commissioned The River That Flows Both Ways by Spencer Finch as the inaugural art installation. The work is integrated into the window bays of the former Nabisco Factory loading dock, as a series of 700 purple and grey colored glass panes. Each color is exactly calibrated to match the center pixel of 700 digital pictures, one taken every minute, of the Hudson River, therefore presenting an extended portrait of the river that gives the work its name.

Rev: "The High Line is an amazing project walking on a disused elevated railway line above the city. In the summer there are stalls selling ice pops made from the herbs grown on the High Line. Go now."
Rev: "The landscape architect who created this magnificent space has famously said, "Brown is a color, too", and he's so right. I saw this wonderful space in early December, when the trees were leafless and most of the plants had gone to sleep for the winter, and the ground cover shone in its own special beauty. The normally very busy path had few visitors early in the morning, so I could see all the features, from the amphitheater-like performance spaces, to the benches, which sort of rise organically out of the pebbled concrete. It was enchanting. There were great views of the Hudson, and of the buildings in the area, which this really lovely park has helped to reclaim -- people just naturally want to live near it. It's so very New York to have created this park, and then to support it -- I live on the west coast, and even I was inspired to joint Friends of the High Line. Truly, I love this place!"
Creative Time worked with the artist to realize the site-specific concept, which emerged when he saw the rusted, disused mullions of the old factory, which metal and glass specialists Jaroff Design helped to prepare and reinstall. The summer of 2010 featured a sound installation by Stephen Vitiello, composed from bells heard through New York. Lauren Ross, formerly director of the alternative art space White Columns, is serving as the first curator for the High Line.

Rev: "Amazed to see how they came up with the idea. Love the way the place was recycled to become a park to relax and hang out. Wish more cities would do this."
The recycling of the railway into an urban park has spurred real estate development in the neighborhoods that lie along the line. Mayor Bloomberg noted that the High Line project has helped usher in something of a renaissance in the neighborhood: by 2009, more than 30 projects were planned or under construction nearby. On the other hand, the real estate boom has its victims as well: many well-established businesses in West Chelsea have closed due to loss of neighborhood customer base or rent increases. Crime has been extraordinarily low in the park. Shortly after the second section opened, The New York Times reported that there have been no reports of major crimes such as assaults or robberies since it opened.

Rev: "We walk the high line every time we are in New York. Such a great idea to make such use of the (no longer in use) train. It takes you directly into meatpacking district which is always a good place to stop for a drink or bite."
Parks Enforcement Patrols had written summonses for various infractions of park rules, such as walking dogs or bicycles on the walkway, but at a rate lower than Central Park. Park advocates attributed that to the high visibility of the High Line from the surrounding buildings, a design feature inspired by the writings of urbanist Jane Jacobs. "Empty parks are dangerous", David told the newspaper. "Busy parks are much less so. You’re virtually never alone on the High Line."
Residents who have bought apartments next to the High Line have adapted to its presence in varying ways. For the most part though, their responses are positive.

Rev: "Yes, the locals hate us for recommending this and I might hate myself too because it has gotten more crowded each time we go, but this is one of those great New York experiences that shouldn't be missed. How can you pass up old rain tracks turned into a walking part? It is a site to be seen, the flowers/gardens are beautiful and the people watching is first rate."
A New Yorker columnist was of the opinion, when reviewing the diner renamed for the High Line, that "the new Chelsea that is emerging on weekends as visitors flood the elevated park ... [is] touristy, overpriced, and shiny." The success of the High Line in New York City has encouraged the leaders of other cities, such as Mayor Rahm Emanuel of Chicago, who see it as "a symbol and catalyst" for gentrifying neighborhoods.

Several cities also have plans to renovate some railroad infrastructure into park land, including Philadelphia, St. Louis and Chicago, where the Bloomingdale Trail, a 2.7 mile-long linear park on former railroad infrastructure, will run through several neighborhoods.

Rev: "The landscape and views change with the seasons. Worth a visit anytime of year to get a different perspective of NYC. Dedicated volunteers keep the extensive "gardens" tidy and beautiful year round. What took several years to achieve by a couple of steadfast men is now a tribute to the ultimate reuse and recycle mantra: Rails to Trails. and a fabulous place to take a fair weather stroll."
It costs substantially less to redevelop an abandoned urban rail line into a linear park than to demolish it. James Corner, one of its designers, said, "The High Line is not easily replicable in other cities," observing that building a "cool park" requires a "framework" of neighborhoods around it in order to succeed. Due to the popularity of the High Line, there have been several proposals for museums along the High Line. The Dia Art Foundation considered but rejected a proposal to build a museum at the Gansevoort Street terminus. The Whitney Museum plans to build on the site, with a design by Renzo Piano, rather than its initial plan of expanding its existing building by Marcel Breuer uptown. In Queens, the QueensWay, a High Line-like park, is being considered for reactivation along the right-of-way of the former LIRR Rockaway Beach Branch.

Rev: "When you walk the high Line you will get a totally different perspective of new york. Do stop and walk down into some of the neighborhoods. There is a great little restaurant at the bottom of a stair way in the high teens called Le Luncheonette. Different times of year give you a different feeling, but it is enjoyable whenever you go."


The High Line, New York

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Secluded beaches, quiet coves and soaring headlands predominate this harbor,
which is considered one of the world's most beautiful.

Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the South Pacific Ocean. Widely considered to be one of the world's finest harbours, it is known for its beauty, and in particular, as the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge which connects central Sydney with the Northern Suburbs region extended metropolitan area. Its entrance is between North and South Heads, where naval and military stations are located.

The location of the first European settlement in Australia, the harbour has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. The city itself lies on the southern shore. The Parramatta River forms the harbour's western arm. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart yacht race.

Rev: "it is very beautiful and i want to live there because of that and many more attractions are there too nice city nice food nice people really love to go there again"
The land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of European discovery and colonisation by various tribes including the Gadigal, Cammeraygal, Eora and Wangal peoples. The Gadigal people are said to have occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west through to Petersham. The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River, west of Petersham to Rose Hill, was reported to belong to the Wanegal. The Eora people lived on the southern side of the harbour, close to where the First Fleet settled.

Rev: "Even though the day was overcast the River-cat trip up to Parramatta from Circular Quay was great. There was plenty of room on the boat, we stopped along the way for people to get off and on, there were some lovely old homes to look at on the way. A most enjoyable trip. We had to get a bus to finish the journey, as it was low tide but the bus was there waiting and included in the tariff. We then walked from the normal ferry stop to the railway and got the train back to the city"
The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour, was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 - Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, (one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, and Judge Advocate of the Fleet). His ship's log notation states "at noon we where...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson."

Eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, then moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and then Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of the 24th. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in H.M. Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, later to become the city of Sydney.

Rev: "We had just landed from a 22 hour trip and took the coffee tour. It was the perfect way to begin seeing Sydney with this relaxing tour providing us a beautiful overview of the city."
In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that "...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security..." In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the 'Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net' was constructed. It spanned the harbour from Green (Laings) Point, Watsons Bay to Georges Head, Mosman, which is on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines attempted to enter the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section.

Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges to destroy it, killing themselves in the process. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green (Laings) Point, Watsons Bay. Today, that Japanese midget submarine remains on static display at the Australian War Memorial.

Rev: "Great restaurant,nice staff, tasty food, stand out quality and presentation. A bit expensive, overpriced, except that, all great."
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. The dramatic view of the bridge, the harbour, and the nearby Sydney Opera House is an iconic image of Sydney, New South Wales, and Australia. The bridge is nicknamed "The Coathanger" because of its arch-based design.

Under the directions of Dr J.J.C. Bradfield of the NSW Department of Public Works, the bridge was designed and built by British firm Dorman Long and Co Ltd of Middlesbrough and opened in 1932. The bridge's design was influenced by the Hell Gate Bridge in New York. It is also the sixth longest spanning-arch bridge in the world, and it is the tallest steel arch bridge, measuring 134 metres from top to water level. It was also the world's widest long-span bridge, at 48.8 meters wide, until construction of the new Port Mann Bridge in Vancouver.

Rev: "The Sydney Harbour is an exceptional site, and all areas surrounding it are worth exploring on foot! Do not skip the Rocks area and Darling Harbour as well!"
A number of former fortifications line Sydney Harbour, some of which are now heritage listed. The earliest date from the 1830s, and were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, Mosman, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex. The forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines, barracks and trenches.

Rev: "A trip to Sydney wouldn't complete without having experience to walk around Sydney Harbour. Must go take picture at iconic Opera house and Harbour Bridge. Take a ferry Darling Harbour at least you could get the to take the picture of both in one frame on boat. Walking across the bridge from The Rocks to the other side really worth all the time and energy."
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river valley, or ria. It is 19 km long with an area of 55 km². The estuary's volume at high tide is 562 million cubic metres. The perimeter of the estuary is 317 kilometres. According to the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales, Port Jackson is "a harbour which comprises all the waters within an imaginary line joining North Head and South Head. Within this harbour lies North Harbour, Middle Harbour and Sydney Harbour."

These three harbours extend from the single entrance (known as Sydney Heads (North and South Heads)). North Harbour is the shortest, and is really just a large bay extending to Manly. Middle Harbour extends to the north-west. It is bridged at The Spit and Roseville. Its headwaters lie in Garigal National Park. The longest arm, Sydney Harbour, extends west as far as Balmain, where it is fed by the estuaries of the Parramatta and Lane Cove rivers.

Rev: "Cruising around Sydney Harbour is one of the great visual experiences of a lifetime. I particularly enjoyed the iconic Sydney Bridge and Opera house."
Port Jackson is bridged by the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the ANZAC Bridge (formerly known as the Glebe Island Bridge). A tunnel, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel passes underneath the Harbour, to the east of the bridge, and in 2005 it was proposed that a third harbour crossing, this time a railway line, be constructed to the west of the bridge. The harbour is heavily embayed. The bays on the south side tend to be wide and rounded, whereas those on the north side are generally narrow inlets. Many of these bays include beaches. Sydney's major central business district begins at Circular Quay, a small bay on the south side that has, over time, had its semicircle reclaimed by land to the point where it is a rectangular quay. The northern side of the harbour is mainly used for residential purposes. The waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the NSW Roads and Maritime Services.

Rev: "Sydney Harbor/Circular Quay area has many activities in one spot. There are many ferries one can catch to visit other parts of Sydney, the hop-on-off bus starts there, The Rocks bar/restaurant area abuts the harbor, The Opera House, and many more attractions."
There are several islands within the harbour, including Shark Island, Clark Island, Fort Denison, Goat Island, Cockatoo Island, Spectacle Island, Snapper Island and Rodd Island. Some other former islands, including Bennelong Island, Garden Island and Berry Island, have subsequently been linked to the shore by land reclamation. Exposed at low tide is Sow and Pigs Reef, a well-known navigation obstacle near the main shipping lane.

Sydney Ferries is an agency of the New South Wales Department of Transport, providing ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River in Sydney, Australia. Most ferry wharves, aside from those concentrated around the Central Business District, lie on the northern banks of the harbour, or on the southern bank, east of the Harbour Bridge.

Rev: "My young daughter and I often spend time in the city. We start at Luna park and then walk over the bridge. It has an amazing view and is full of history we have also walked at night there are security but may get a little hairy as in some parts it is dark just before the steps."
There is a lesser concentration of ferry wharves in the western areas of the harbour. A service runs to Parramatta, along the Parramatta River, which is serviced by the RiverCat vessels, a large catamaran type ferry. In addition to the state owned ferry service, private ferry operators run a fast commuter service between Manly and the city during peak times. Fast services on this route are now offered by private operators, following the Government decision in December 2009 to cease the premium service operated by Sydney Ferries. Finally, a small number of water taxi and water limousine operators are active on the harbour, offering transport to individuals and groups who do not wish to travel by ferry. These water taxis are not restricted by timetables or specific routes, and can also provide a service to or from private wharfs and houses on the waterfront.

Rev: "The Sydnet Harbour is the best in the world. Not just the 'big bit', get in and around the inner harbour via the ferry system and you'll discover another world."
The building of the bridge was under the management of Bradfield. Three other people heavily involved in the bridge's design and construction were Lawrence Ennis, Edward Judge, and Sir Ralph Freeman. Ennis was the engineer-in-charge at Dorman Long and Co and the main on-site supervisor (Bradfield visited occasionally throughout the project and, in particular, at many key stages of the project, to inspect progress and make managerial decisions), Judge was chief technical engineer of Dorman Long, and Freeman was hired by the company to design the accepted model in further detail. Later a bitter disagreement broke out between Bradfield and Freeman as to who actually designed the bridge. Another name connected with the bridge's design is that of Arthur Plunkett.

Rev: "Apart from being a very busy place, there is so much to see and do every day. Would highly recommend doing the Opera House tour which is only for an hour but so worth it."


It is a must-visit for anyone  who  wants to pay their respects to the victims of 9/11.

St. Paul's Chapel, is an Episcopal chapel located at 209 Broadway, between Fulton and Vesey Streets, in Lower Manhattan in New York City. It is the oldest surviving church building in Manhattan. A chapel of the Parish of Trinity Church, St. Paul's was built on land granted by Anne, Queen of Great Britain, designed by architect Thomas McBean and built by master craftsman Andrew Gautier. Upon completion in 1766, it stood in a field some distance from the growing port city to the south. It was built as a "chapel-of-ease" for parishioners who thought the Mother Church inconvenient to access.

Built of Manhattan mica-schist with brownstone quoins, St. Paul's has the classical portico, boxy proportions and domestic details that are characteristic of Georgian churches such as James Gibbs' London church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, after which it was modelled. Its octagonal tower rises from a square base and is topped by a replica of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (c. 335 BC). Inside, the chapel's simple elegant hall has the pale colors, flat ceiling and cut glass chandeliers reminiscent of contemporary domestic interiors.

Rev: "When visiting Ground Zero you must take in this little gem!! You get a real sense of what occurred and it's not tacky or over dramatized. Quite emotional."
In contrast to the awe-inspiring interior of Trinity Church, this hall and its ample gallery were endowed with a cozy and comfortable character in order to encourage attendance. On the Broadway side of the chapel's exterior is an oak statue of the church's namesake, Saint Paul, carved in the American Primitive style. Below the east window is the monument to Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, who died at the Battle of Quebec (1775) during the American Revolutionary War. In the spire, the first bell is inscribed "Mears London, Fecit 1797."

Rev: "This little church, no more than 400 metres to the world trade centre when 9/11 tragedy made a BIG contribution to many survivors, first responders, rescuers and all the other good people who went to give aid on that fateful day. The church staff and all the other volunteer organisations i.e. Salvation army and many more volunteer groups did a wonderful job looking after all rescue teams from all over the USA and fed, watered and provided all kinds of assistance and this chapel has to be visited to get the full impact of that terrible day." 
The second bell, made in 1866, was added in celebration of the chapel's 100th anniversary. The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960, in part because it is the oldest public building in continuous use in New York City. The chapel survived the Great New York City Fire of 1776 when a quarter of New York City (then confined to the lower tip of Manhattan), including Trinity Church, burned following the British capture of the city after the Battle of Long Island during the American Revolutionary War. The Hearts of Oak, a militia unit organized early in the American Revolutionary War, and comprised in part of King's College (later, Columbia University) students, would drill in the Chapel's yard before classes nearby. Alexander Hamilton was an officer of this unit. George Washington, along with members of the United States Congress, worshipped at St. Paul's Chapel on his Inauguration Day, on April 30, 1789. Washington also attended services at St. Paul's during the two years New York City was the country's capital. Above Washington's pew is an 18th-century oil painting of the Great Seal of the United States; adopted in 1782.
The chapel contains several monuments and memorials that attest to its elevated status in early New York: a monument to Richard Montgomery (hero of the battle of Quebec) sculpted by Jean-Jacques Caffieri (1777), George Washington's original pew and a Neo-Baroque sculpture called "Glory" designed by Pierre L'Enfant, the designer of Washington, D.C. The pulpit is surmounted by a coronet and six feathers, and fourteen original cut-glass chandeliers hang in the nave and the galleries.

The rear of St. Paul's Chapel faces Church Street, opposite the east side of the World Trade Center site. After the attack on September 11, 2001, which led to the collapse of the twin towers of the World Trade Center, St. Paul's Chapel served as a place of rest and refuge for recovery workers at the WTC site.

Rev: "So much history- George Washington attended church services at St Pauls for one year while NYC was the nations capitol. The huge role this church played in the aftermath of 9/11 is also quite amazing. It is part of the 9/11 walking tour- we highly suggest you take this tour offered. You will gain the most from your visit here (we had Rob as our guide and he told us so many pertinent stories about this church!)…the walking tour costs money but entry to the church is free!" 
For eight months, hundreds of volunteers worked 12 hour shifts around the clock, serving meals, making beds, counseling and praying with fire fighters, construction workers, police and others. Massage therapists, chiropractors, podiatrists and musicians also tended to their needs. The church survived without even a broken window. Church history declares it was spared by a miracle sycamore on the northwest corner of the property that was hit by debris. The tree's root has been preserved in a bronze memorial by sculptor Steve Tobin. While the church's organ was badly damaged by smoke and dirt, the organ has been refurbished and is in use again. The fence around the church grounds became the main spot for visitors to place impromptu memorials to the event.

Rev: "I loved being at St Paul's not only for it's place in 9/11 but also for the's the oldest surviving church in New York City. George Washington attended services there, and did so after his inauguration in 1789. Took a beautiful photo of Freedom Tower from the cemetery at St Paul's." 
After it became filled with flowers, photos, teddy bears, and other paraphernalia, chapel officials decided to erect a number of panels on which visitors could add to the memorial. Estimating that only 15 would be needed in total, they eventually required 400. Rudolph Giuliani gave his mayoral farewell speech at the church on December 27, 2001. The Chapel is now a popular tourist destination since it still keeps many of the memorial banners around the sanctuary and has an extensive audio video history of the event. There are a number of exhibits in the Chapel. The first one when entering is "Healing Hearts and Minds", which consists of a policeman's uniform covered with police and firefighter patches sent from all over the country, including Iowa, West Virginia, California, etc. The most visible is the "Thread Project", which consists of several banners, each of a different color, and woven from different locations from around the globe, hung from the upper level over the pews.
Rev: "Breathtaking, one of the things that surprised me most about my visit to New York is all the churches that pop up in the middle of a line of concrete buildings and skyscrapers.... a thing on wonder! and well worth a visit."


It is a Library, With Two marble lions mark the entrance to this Beaux Arts masterpiece
National Historic Landmark, containing more than six million books.

The New York Public Library is a public library system with nearly 53 million items, the NYPL is the second largest public library in the United States (and third largest in the world), behind only the Library of Congress. It is an independently managed, nonprofit corporation operating with both private and public financing. The library has branches in the boroughs of Manhattan, The Bronx and Staten Island and it has affiliations with academic and professional libraries in the metropolitan area of New York State. The City of New York's other two boroughs, Brooklyn and Queens, are served by the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Borough Public Library, respectively. The branch libraries are open to the general public and consist of research libraries and circulating libraries. The library originated in the 19th century, and its founding and roots are the amalgamation of grass-roots libraries, social libraries of bibliophiles and the wealthy, and from philanthropy of the wealthiest Americans of their age.

Rev: "Awesome place. The printed word deserves a home like this. Magnificent architecture and art pay tribute to man's greatest invention. Wonderful bookstore/gift shop, too."
At the behest of Joseph Cogswell, John Jacob Astor placed a codicil in his will to bequeath $400,000 ($10.8 M in 2012) for the creation of a public library. After Astor's death in 1848, the resulting board of trustees executed the will's conditions and constructed the Astor Library in 1854 in the East Village. The library created was a free, reference library, as its books were not permitted to circulate. By 1872, the Astor Library was a "major reference and research resource", but, "Popular it certainly is not, and, so greatly is it lacking in the essentials of a public library, that its stores might almost as well be under lock and key, for any access the masses of the people can get thereto". An act of the New York State Legislature incorporated the Lenox Library in 1870.

Rev: "I love to take visitors to the main library at 42nd & Fifth because the exhibits are always interesting -- and free! The building itself is a marvel of old classic concepts of libraries, education, and learning. The Children's Book exhibit was beautifully done."
The library was built on Fifth Avenue, between 70th and 71st street, in 1877 and to it, bibliophile and philanthropist James Lenox donated a vast collection of his Americana, art works, manuscripts, and rare books, including the first Gutenberg Bible in the New World. At its inception, the library charged admission and did not permit physical access to any literary items. The famous New York author Washington Irving was a close friend of Astor for decades and helped the philanthropist design the Astor Library. Irving served as President of the library's Board of Trustees from 1848 until his death in 1859, shaping the libraries collecting policies with his strong sensibility regarding European intellectual life.

 Rev: "The New York Public Library is the place to discover everything! Want to find Pooh Bear ... go inside! Want to see one of the most extensive collections of Dickens? Enter the front doors! The NY Public Library is guarded by wonderful lions that our children have loved forever. Go in and find your own set of lions in the gift shop. Stay in and look through the permanent collections ... see what is new too! Fabulous-one-of-a-kind adventure awaits you! Don't miss it on your next trip to Manhattan!"
Subsequently the Library hired nationally prominent experts to guide its collections policies; they reported directly to directors John Shaw Billings (who also developed the National Library of Medicine), Edwin H. Anderson, Harry Miller Lydenberg, Franklin F. Hopper, Ralph A. Beals, and Edward Freehafer (1954–70).

They emphasized expertise, objectivity and a very broad world-wide range of knowledge in acquiring, preserving, organizing, and making available to the general population nearly 12 million books and 26.5 million additional items. The directors in turn reported to an elite board of trustees, chiefly elderly, well-educated, philanthropic, predominantly Protestant, upper-class white men with commanding positions in American society. They saw their role as protecting the library's autonomy from politicians as well as bestowing upon it status, resources, and prudent care.

Rev: "This building looks like a museum from the outside and certainly has some amazing architecture inside too. Staff are helpful and there are good directions inside to the areas you may need. We didn't spend long inside because you could easily lose a whole day in here and we didn't have the time. Worth a visit, however brief, just for the vastness of books and space."
Representative of many major decisions was the purchase in 1931 of the private library of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich (1847–1909), uncle of the last tsar. This was one of the largest acquisition of Russian books and photographic materials, and was made possible by the Soviet government's policy of selling its cultural collections abroad for gold. The military made heavy use of the Library's map and book collections in the world wars.

For example, the Map Division's chief Walter Ristow became head of the geography section of the War Department's New York Office of Military Intelligence from 1942 to 1945. Ristow and his staff discovered copied and loaned thousands of strategic, rare or unique maps to war agencies in need of information not available through other sources.

Rev: "one of my favorite quiet spots indoors. It is not just the volumes there. One can spend hours just staring at the architecture. If you have children, the Children's library is a must, we well."
The organizers of the New York Public Library, wanting an imposing main branch, chose a central site available at the two-block section of Fifth Avenue between 40th and 42nd streets, then occupied by the no-longer-needed Croton Reservoir. Dr. John Shaw Billings, the first director of the library, created an initial design which became the basis of the new building (now known as the Schwarzman Building) on Fifth Avenue. Billings's plan called for a huge reading room on top of seven floors of bookstacks combined with a system that was designed to get books into the hands of library users as fast as possible.

Following a competition among the city's most prominent architects, Carrère and Hastings was selected to design and construct the building. The cornerstone was laid in May 1902, and the building's completion was expected to be in three years. In 1910, 75 miles of shelves were installed, and it took a year to move and install the books that were in the Astor and Lenox libraries.

Rev: "One of the places to visit that is a must. Check out the ceilings and lighting they take your breath away. Strangely enough although probably the most famous library on the planet you can't check a book out but you can sit and read in such beautiful surroundings."
On May 23, 1911, the main branch of the New York Public Library was officially opened in a ceremony presided over by President William Howard Taft. After a dedication ceremony, the library was open to the general public that day. The library had cost $9 million to build and its collection consisted of more than 1,000,000 volumes. The library structure was a Beaux-Arts design and was the largest marble structure up to that time in the United States. It included two stone lions guarding the entrance were sculpted by E. C. Potter. Its main reading room was contemporaneously the largest of its kind in the world at 77 feet wide by 295 feet long, with 50 feet high ceilings. It is lined with thousands of reference books on open shelves along the floor level and along the balcony. The New York Public Library instantly became one of the nation's largest libraries and a vital part of the intellectual life of America. Dr. Harry Miller Lydenberg served as director between 1934–1941.

Rev: "I couldn't go to New York without seeing the library. Amazing. You need to see it, the building is a beauty. I could have sat in there all day but it was our last day so it was a quick visit.....well worth a look."
Christmas tree in the main entrance to the NYPL at Astor Hall.

The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965. Over the decades, the library system added branch libraries, and the research collection expanded until, by the 1970s, it was clear the collection eventually would outgrow the existing structure. In the 1980s the central research library added more than 125,000 square feet of space and literally miles of bookshelf space to its already vast storage capacity to make room for future acquisitions. This expansion required a major construction project in which Bryant Park, directly west of the library, was closed to the public and excavated. The new library facilities were built below ground level and the park was restored above it.

Rev: "Definitely a place to see in New York. Such a beautiful library, but you must remember, it's still a library and you shouldn't walk around speaking so loudly. People still go there to do there work. A gorgeous place to see."
In the three decades before 2007, the building's interior was gradually renovated. On December 20, 2007, the library announced it would undertake a three-year, $50 million renovation of the building exterior, which has suffered damage from weathering and pollution. The renovation was completed on time, and on February 2, 2011 the refurbished facade was unveiled. The restoration design was overseen by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., whose previous projects include the Metropolitan Museum of Art's limestone facades and the American Museum of Natural History, made of granite. These renovations were underwritten by a $100-million gift from philanthropist Stephen A. Schwarzman, whose name will be inscribed at the bottom of the columns which frame the building's entrances.

Rev: "The building is facinating inside-out. The furniture and old lightings are amazing. For tourists, it's a nice place to take a break, sitting down at one of the desks staring at the beautiful ceiling after hours of shopping on the 5th! And it's got the best free wifi in NYC!"
Today the main reading room is equipped with computers with access to library collections and the Internet and docking facilities for laptops. There are special rooms for notable authors and scholars, many of whom have done important research and writing at the Library. Even though the central research library on 42nd Street had expanded its capacity, in the 1990s the decision was made to remove that portion of the research collection devoted to science, technology, and business to a new location. The new location was the abandoned B. Altman department store on 34th Street.

Rev: "Book lovers will be delighted with the Library. The building is beside the lovely Bryant Park and both the exterior and interior are worth a closer look. But it is the shelves and shelves of books in a historic setting that are the highlight. When I was there, it was thanksgiving and a first edition of a Christmas Carol was on display, with handwritten notes by Charles Dickens in the margins. Brilliant."
In 1995, the 100th anniversary of the founding of the library, the $100 million Science, Industry and Business Library (SIBL), designed by Gwathmey Siegel & Associates of Manhattan, finally opened to the public. Upon the creation of the SIBL, the central research library on 42nd Street was renamed the Humanities and Social Sciences Library. Today there are four research libraries that comprise the NYPL's research library system which hold approximately 44,000,000 items.

Rev: "The NY Public Library is one of the gems of NYC. Of course you want to see the famous stone lions outside, and visit Bryant Park next door. In summer, it's a great place to sit and picnic. In winter, you can skate there, visit the holiday market stalls and people watch. Inside the library they always have wonderful exhibits-- and they're always free. We loved the exhibit on the History of Lunch, complete with old automat equipment. I've seen great exhibits on Blake, on Charles Dickens...Now there's a special show on children's books, also worth a visit. They even have a sweet little gift shop."

Total item holdings, including the collections of the Branch Libraries, are 50.6 million. The Humanities and Social Sciences Library on 42nd Street is still the heart of the NYPL's research library system, but the SIBL, with approximately 2 million volumes and 60,000 periodicals, is the nation's largest public library devoted solely to science and business. The NYPL's two other research libraries are the Schomburg Center for Research and Black Culture, located at 135th Street and Lenox Avenue in Harlem and the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, located at Lincoln Center. In addition to their reference collections, the Library for the Performing Arts and the SIBL also have circulating components that are administered as ordinary branch libraries.

Unlike most other libraries, such as the Library of Congress, the New York Public Library was not created by government statute. From the earliest days of the New York Public Library, a tradition of partnership of city government with private philanthropy began, which continues to this day. As of 2010, the research libraries in the system are largely funded with private money, and the branch or circulating libraries are financed primarily with city government funds.


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